In November 1985, issued a decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers, according to which TSKBMT "Rubin" started design studies in two ways APKR nuclear submarine of the fourth generation -955 project code "Northwind-I", involves equipping promising complex SLBM D-31 and 935 project "Borey-II", complex D-35. Directed the work of Chief Designer Sergei Kovalev Nikititch.
" later by my deputies deposited very intelligent and erudite Vladimir A. Zdornov, who later became chief designer and project leader of our group. In his role as General Designer missile fourth and fifth generations Zdornov made a decisive and invaluable contribution to the ships of the project 955 "Borey" ", -says Sergey Nikititch.However
review of priorities in the changed geopolitical conditions, lack of budget funding and correction of military requirements for the new system led to the gradual closure of work on a set of D-31 and D-35. In 1995, a decree of Russian President approved a proposal to equip the Navy Project 955-D complex 19UTTH "Bark" with missile R-development 39UTTH State Rocket Center SRC named VP Makeyev.
This complex was created in the development of the D-19 for the purpose of retrofitting submarines of Project 941. decision to place on the "Boree" heavy and bulky D-12 missiles 19UTTH require major changes to the original appearance of the ship.Bookmark
head boats serial number 201 was held November 2, 1996 in Severodvinsk , at Sevmash. However, economic difficulties and systemic crisis in the "defense" of the country seriously hindered the pace of construction. At the time, CEO David SMP Pashaeva exert strong pressure to conduct a large-scale layoffs Sevmash and refuse, for example, to continue building ships Project 949A, dropping them for scrap.
reducing defense procurement has caused difficulties in paying wages. To retain qualified personnel, management MSP went on compulsory measures, including the distribution of food among the employees on the cards and a free lunch in the canteen. These and other steps helped Sevmash survive a very difficult period at the turn of the century and preserve the core of the workforce. It came in handy Russia when the new leadership headed by President Vladimir Putin began to pay due attention to issues of national security and support "defense".
" last decade of the last century and the first decade of the new were a critical period, when the issue is not only to maintain the combat capability of the Russian Navy, conservation design offices and shipyards, but also throughout the vast industrial cooperation, and it includes hundreds of companies specializing in their areas , -said the president of the United Shipbuilding Corporation USC Andrew Diachkov. - Due to the fact that in the late nineties at the level of the country`s leadership had decided to start construction APKR type "Northwind", all of this cooperation has been supported financially, before her set specific targets and requirements.
Companies were able to realize their scientific and technical potential, without fear of closing their businesses for financial and economic reasons. The decision to start construction of ships of "Northwind" enabled engineering and scientific organizations, manufacturing plants established deliverable samples, do not lose staffing, to maintain continuity, so needed to create such a complex technology as a warship ".
However, after the decision in principle on the fate of the "Boreas" Implementation of the program was difficult. Unfortunately, three test missile launch complex "Bark" on the ground in Nyonoksa in 1993-1997 were unsuccessful . Analysis of the "missions" ended in September 1998 and the decision to close the program. But from the "Boreas" Russian military and political leadership refused. Competition was announced for the development of new solid-fuel missile under the code "Mace".
SRC proposed "Bulava-45" starting weight 47 tons, and the Moscow Institute of Heat -"Bulava-30" weighing about 36 tons. Chose the second sentence, as MIT took unify new marine system with just completed testing complex "Topol-M" land-based.
Select "Bulava-30" resulted in the subsequent modification drawings "Boreas" at the end of the last century . To save money, we decided to use in the construction of the first ship had touched at Sevmash for hull structures unfinished submarines "Lynx" and "Cougar" Project 971. Construction of the head of the ship "Yury Dolgoruky" resumed the formation of his body was completed in 2004.Conclusion
"Yury Dolgoruky" from shop number 55 in Severodvinsk trigger floating dock "Sukhona" dated April 15, 2007. Boat was launched on February 12, 2008 th, and nine months later -on November 21 it was produced physical launch of the reactor. Mooring tests submarine began March 17, 2009 , from June 19 to July 10, the ship passed the first stage of sea trials. The second stage was launched in August of the same year.
Adopting missile complex D-30 missile "Bulava" was planned for 2004-2005, but a series of failed launches forced to revise the program and it has moved on terms "right". appeared that unification with the surface complex is difficult, and although the last developments have been widely used in the "Bulava" missile still had to re-design .
According to data provided by the Russian side as an exchange of information with the United States, a three-stage solid-fuel ballistic missile 3M30 complex "Bulava" has a weight 36.8 tons, a length of 12.1 meters, divided head carries a warhead with a throw-weight of 1150 kg six warheads individual guidance. Claimed maximum range -9300 km.
pursuing the objectives of economy, refused test launches "Bulava" with landfill Nyonoksa. To test a new missile boat finished the head of Project 941. On board the TK-208 "Dmitry Donskoy" September 23, 2004 conducted by the throwing height of 40 meters under the water test. Then, in the period from 27 September 2005 to 9 December 2009, "Dmitry Donskoy" carried out 11 launches "Bulava", three of them successful and two partially successful.Sergei Kovalev
October 1, 2005, wrote: " not without controversy, but it was decided our only possible decision on all the throwing and flight testing of the submarine. First, Balaklava is not ours, and the stand is not submersible, ground stand is not in the best condition and test complex "Bulava" is not adapted. Secondly, unlike all previous ICBM missile complex "Bulava" has no ties with pneumatichydraulic boat, which excludes the possibility of erroneous actions during its prelaunch ".
great influence on the course of the program has had a systemic crisis in the defense industry, reflected on the many suppliers and caused serious problems with the quality of components . The country`s leadership has reacted harshly to the failed test results, changing the key figures in the leadership of MITA. Took a serious adjustment of industrial cooperation. The result was not long in coming. In October of 2010, "Dmitry Donskoy" performed a couple of successful launches "Mace".Then
June 28, 2011 a rocket was successfully launched from the "Yury Dolgoruky". As part of the joint state tests launches "Mace" from the head "Boreas" completed in August and October 2011. A December 28 was carried out by two missiles volley. Successful passage of the final phase of testing, "Bulava" opens the possibility of signing an acceptance certificate APKR "Yury Dolgoruky".
Replacing the highest public office of Russia Boris Yeltsin, Putin corrected policy of strategic nuclear deterrence forces. This allowed at the beginning of the new century, back to the question of building a series APKR Project 955. Planned to enter into the Russian Navy eight submarines of this type , which is written in the state armament program until 2020.
second body -"Alexander Nevsky" serial number 202 laid March 19, 2004. " When laying in 1996," Yury Dolgoruky "angry and hungry workers shouted to attend this solemn event Chubais:" Red, drive grandma! ". And while laying in 2004 the first serial ship overall mood was upbeat and festive. The plant has already come out of the crisis ", -says Sergey Kovalev.Bookmark
third ship was held on 19 March 2006, it was named "Vladimir Monomakh" serial number 203. The first day of December 2010, "Alexander Nevsky," derived from the workshop to trigger docking "Sukhona" and 6 December launched the. Boat started sea trials October 22, 2011. It is expected that this fall cruiser perform two missile launch. Transfer "Alexander Nevsky" Russian Navy is scheduled for late 2012 -early 2013 .
As emphasized the current head of the Russian state in one of its program of articles published in February of 2012, " not talking about the militarization of the Russian budget. Essentially means that we identify -is "pay the bill" for those years when the army and navy are chronically underfunded, when practically does not supply new weapons. While other countries have consistently increased their "military muscle ".
Documents to build boats improved head design and the following four ships were delayed for some time during the negotiation phase due to fierce controversy between the Defense Ministry and USC pricing parameters . After the personal intervention of the President of Russia May 28, 2012 the military department immediately signed three contracts: performance of CDB ME "Rubin" development work on the project 955A, the construction at Sevmash head boats 955A project and contract directly with USC to build four submarines serial Project 955A.
Vladimir Putin explained: " Department of Defense contracts lays in profitability of 20% -this is quite enough for the realization of the above objectives. Moreover, the customer -according to the Ministry of Defence to designate margins and more -30%, maybe even 35%, but only if it is clearly and distinctly understood that these funds will be spent on modernization of enterprises. Our shipbuilding industry should be ready for serial production of advanced models of equipment and weapons, which fully comply with modern requirements, the challenges faced by the Russian navy, and we need the best quality products, of course, economically justified prices ".This
USC will have the right to request a 2015 War Department to increase funding for this program. In November last year it was reported that Sevmash started preparatory work for the construction of the fifth and sixth "Boreas", without waiting for a contract. " Borey-A" -ship with improved performance, it is about modernization project taking into account the latest scientific and technological achievements , -says Igor Villeneuve. - Thus, projects "Northwind" and "Borey-A" to ensure continued improvement and development of domestic submarine missile-carrying fleet over the next decade ".
Speaking of "Boree", it should be noted that its creation has returned to the path of domestic shipbuilders well balanced projects. In the historical line 955 project follows the controversial project 941. Last "fell" from the global statistics on many key parameters, primarily because of the huge full displacement, almost twice as much as their Western counterparts, and its predecessor -Project 667.
Comparative analysis shows that "Northwind" missile "Bulava" fits perfectly into the range of modern nuclear submarines formed by American, British and French projects see table. It can be concluded that, carefully analyzing the situation at the beginning of the 90s, Russian politicians, the military, the designers and manufacturers seriously adjusted their old Soviet-era ideas about the future of the submarine fleet and took the right decision of a systemic nature, laying the foundation for modern deterrence based on the principle of reasonable sufficiency.
" plans to build a fourth-generation submarines were adopted in the late eighties, but with the collapse of the USSR and the lack of funding for the implementation of these plans lasted for decades. Today, when the country`s leadership has come to realize that the public interest must be protected by force, and not just a game of democracy and the military industry within reasonable limits to the progress and enriches rather than impoverishes the state, there is hope for the creation of the fleet, without which there can Russian statehood be ", -wrote Sergei Kovalev.
Successful completion of tests of the lead ship of Project 955, the construction of two serial and bookmark quite large by today`s series of five ships improved design is a remarkable achievement of the national defense industry, which symbolizes the beginning of a new stage in its development.Construction of these ships
demonstrates the ability of the Russian state at the present level of support the capacity of its strategic nuclear forces and implemented with the proper political will and resource concentration sophisticated technology programs nationwide.
/ Karnozov Vladimir, Konstantin Makiyenko -Deputy Director of the Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies, vpk-news.ru /